#DISINFOVIRUS

What is the truth about coronavirus?

The world is facing not only a pandemic but also an infodemic. Here you can find a database of misinformation, disinformation and hoaxes that have appeared in the information space in connection with the novel coronavirus, as well as their factual deconstruction and expert clarification. The enduring contagion also opens up space for undermining democratic principles, polarizing society and harming critical thinking as such. These days the society needs to stabilise its information and cognitive security more than ever before. The current crisis situation requires a responsible approach. Often it concerns the life of an individual itself.


  • CORONAVIRUS INFECTION IS NOT A MERE FLU
    COVID-19 is 2-times more contagious (2-3 people) than seasonal flu (1,3 people) – with 10 “rounds” of spreading the infection, flu only affects 57 people, while COVID-19 affects at least 2000 people. For seasonal flu, the incubation period is 1 day, for COVID-19, it is 2 up to 14 days, during which the person is contagious without knowing. Seasonal flu usually has very mild progress and only about 2% of the infected people need hospitalization. With COVID-19, hospitalization is needed in 20-31% of cases. So far, it seems that the death rate of COVID-19 is about 6.9% (as of April 23, 2020), while for seasonal flu, it is only 0.1%. There is a vaccine and an effective treatment for the flu, but neither exists for COVID-19 yet. A lot of people have already developed their immunity
    against seasonal flu, whether thanks to vaccination or overcoming it in the past. Since COVID-19 is a new disease, no one has developed their immunity yet, which leads to markedly higher contagiousness.
  • NUMBER OF DEATHS FROM COVID-19 ISN'T NEGLIGIBLE
    In the case of the COVID-19 epidemic, WHO states a global death rate of 6.9% as of April 23, 2020. It was 4.8% as of March 30, 2020, 3.4% as of February 29, 2.2% at the end of January – so it has a rising tendency. The virus began to spread intensively only recently – a lot of people are facing an infection at the moment, and we do not know how many of them will succumb to it. The lethality of the 2009 swine flu pandemic was 0.02%, seasonal flu ranges under the line of 0,1% on average. On the other hand, lethality during the 2002 SARS epidemic was 9.6% and for the MERS epidemic from 2012, even 34.4%. However, we cannot say that the death rate of the new coronavirus is negligible.
  • ‘PREVENTION PARADOX’ DOWNPLAYS THE SITUATION
    The video showing an “empty” hospital in Berlin in the midst of the pandemic, is evidence of the so-called prevention paradox. When people see half-empty hospitals, they may think the severity of the virus had been overblown by the media or the government. What they do not realize is that the favourable situation is a result of the preventive measures the government had put in place, rather than the mildness of the virus. The particular video that spread this disinformation was filmed at the Charité hospital, which was singled out to solely host patients with COVID-19. Other hospitals may also be emptier than usual because most countries have temporarily halted the execution of non-essential procedures, as a protective measure.
  • COURSE AND DURATION OF COVID-19 ARE INDIVIDUAL
    Most patients experience the disease somewhat differently. The incubation period of the virus ranges from 2 to 14 days. The first symptoms usually appear on day 5 or 6, but there are exceptions. Infected people tend to be the most infectious during the first week since symptoms appear. Most patients are cured within a week, but some cases can take much longer and have a worsening tendency. There have also been cases of people who overcame the disease with no symptoms. Hence, there is no uniform progression of the virus that applies to everyone.
  • MORE SYMPTOMS DOESN'T IMMEDIATELY INDICATE COVID-19
    COVID-19 manifests itself by different symptoms in different people. Its presence can be confirmed only with a laboratory test, which refutes the presumption of what the individual indicators mean. Most of the people have only mild symptoms, but the typical symptoms of COVID-19 are fever and fever accompanied by a dry, persistent cough. According to Public Health Authority of the Slovak Republic accompanying symptoms of COVID-19 are fever above 38°C; cough; difficult breathing; muscles pain; headache; fatigue; lassitude and loss of smell and taste. However, no symptom alone confirms COVID-19.
  • WATER OR HOT BEVERAGES DON'T KILL CORONAVIRUS
    No beverage can help prevent or cure COVID-19. The belief that drinking protects you by “flushing” virus particles into your stomach is incorrect, as these particles may also exist in other parts of the body. Furthermore, for some people, such as cardiacs, drinking too much may be life-threatening, as it can lead to organ failure. Another potentially harmful habit is the regular gurgling of salt water; it can damage the pharynx and larynx, making their mucous membranes more susceptible to bacteria and viruses.
  • PEPPERMINT TEA ISN'T CURE NOR PREVENTION FOR COVID-19
    Effects of mefloquine, which is found in peppermint, against COVID-19 haven’t been confirmed by any scientific study. To claim that taking any substance guarantees prevention of pneumonia is brave, at least. Mint is used as a traditional herbal treatment for digestion problems (flatulence), for increasing the excretion of digestive juices, or externally against itching. But no mint preparation can influence the entry of coronavirus into cells. Essences contained in mint are insoluble in water, meaning they infuse it minimally. They evaporate quickly at high temperatures, so pouring boiling water on them decreases the amount released into the tea even more.
  • NATURE VISITS AREN'T EXCLUDED IN ISOLATION
    Self-isolation is indeed crucial to stop a viral infection; however, the principle of quarantine is to limit interpersonal contact, not to imprison people in their houses. Nature visits without people with whom we do not come into contact at home are welcome. This is because vitamin D deficiency can lead to an insufficient immune response and it is, therefore, advisable to supplement it, for instance from the sunlight. However, vitamin D should be taken as a form of prevention, not as a form of treatment. If you go to nature and there are no people around, wearing a facemask is not necessary. Beware of possible humidification of the facemask, which can lead to the loss of its effectiveness. Although coronavirus spreads among other animal species, it has not yet been confirmed that domestic animals pose a risk of transmitting the virus to humans.
  • WE DON'T KNOW HOW MANY PEOPLE MUST REMAIN ISOLATED
    The claim that the new coronavirus will be eradicated only when 90% of the population stays in isolation, is baseless. There is no way to reliably calculate that. Equally, it is impossible to know how many people are currently self-isolating worldwide. Even if it were possible, the degree of isolation is not the only factor that influences the spread of the virus, so it would not have much explanatory power.
  • LONG-TERM IMMUNITY AGAINST CORONA IS UNCERTAIN
    A few cases of re-infection with the new coronavirus after recovery have occurred in China, Japan and Korea. There may be various causes for these, e.g. incorrect original test results or remnants of the original infection. Virologists have been trying to determine whether these patients were re-infected or "just" reactivated. Re-infection with COVID-19 is relatively rare and people usually build at least short-term immunity after overcoming the infection. However, its exact mechanism is unknown, and it is not yet possible to predict how long the immunity can last.
  • IBUPROFEN DOESN'T WORSEN THE COURSE OF COVID-19
    The French Minister of Health warned of the risk of taking ibuprofen, referring to the analysis of researchers from the universities of Thessaloniki and Basel published in the journal Lancet Respiratory Medicine. However, the authors distanced themselves from the conclusion that the anti-inflammatory agent in ibuprofen is aggravating patients with coronavirus. According to the European Medicines Agency and the WHO, there is no reason to stop treating a fever with ibuprofen. Therefore, ibuprofen is a safe treatment for the symptoms of COVID-19 if the indications are respected. Some studies describe a worse course of respiratory infections with ibuprofen, but this thesis has not been proven with COVID-19.
  • ANTIBIOTICS DON'T WORK AGAINST CORONAVIRUS
    Antibiotics work against bacteria, not viruses. Therefore, they should not be used as a way of treating or preventing coronavirus infection. Antibiotics for COVID-19 infection are only used to treat co-occurring bacterial infections, not the coronavirus itself.
  • DRINKING TONIC WATER DOESN'T CURE OR PREVENT COVID-19
    Hydroxychloroquine - a synthetic form of quinine used to treat malaria - is being considered as a potential treatment for COVID-19. However, the amount of quinine contained in tonic water is too low to have any medical effects. Tonic water contains just about 83 mg of quinine per litre, which is significantly less than in therapeutic quinine pills, containing between 500 and 1000 mg of quinine. Higher doses of quinine can even lead to anaemia or decreased bone density. Also, healthy people, or people with mild COVID-19 symptoms, should not combine drugs containing quinine and zinc. The method is being tested on patients with severe symptoms by Dr Anthony Cardill but can have negative side effects.
  • ZINC ISN'T CONFIRMED MEDICINE FOR COVID-19
    Zinc is related to treatment of the common cold. There are a couple of studies which describe shorter duration of the cold in case of people supplemented with zinc. It is true that common coronaviruses are often the cold’s originators. But applying these conclusions from one disease to another which is caused by a completely different virus, just because the viruses are from the same group, is nonsense. There are no studies to confirm the therapeutic effect of zinc in COVID-19 treatment.
  • SALINE SOLUTION ISN'T PREVENTIVE AGAINST CORONA
    Using saline solutions for nose douching is helpful for decreasing the severity of symptoms of common flu, but there is no evidence that these practices do work against COVID-19. There is no evidence that the coronavirus does reside in cavities after before migrating to the lings. The efficiency of this douching during flu is because it helps with moistening the cavities and helps wash out the sputum. This does not have any significance against respiratory diseases as COVID-19. The containers used for douching might even contract the coronavirus and increase the hazard of contamination.
  • CORONAVIRUS ISN'T SPREAD THROUGH DRINKING WATER
    Due to WHO epidemic experience from last years and the drinking water supply system in Slovakia (dominant usage of underground water) there is no need of fear that the drinking water from public water services could be contaminated by coronavirus. Moreover, using additional water treatments is not needed since the water has already been through several treatments in compliance with the Ministry of Health's norms. COVID-19 is spreading through the air and therefore the contamination of water is not likely to occur.
  • UV LAMPS AREN'T RECCOMMENDED AGAINST COVID-19
    The UVC radiation (the least common type of UV radiation) is able to kill other types of coronaviruses (such as SARS) because they damage the structure of its genetic material and prevent its replication. Currently, there is no scientific research that would confirm similar results for SARS-COV-2. UVC is not suitable for common usage since during several seconds it can cause skin burns, eye damage and it is potentially carcinogenic. Even though some sources state that these are only short-term risks, the use of UVC is not recommended. The UVC effects on some of the coronaviruses are proved and hospitals use it for sterilization. Because of the risks, it is important that the UVC radiation is used only by professionals.
  • HAIRDRYERS DON'T HELP TO KILL THE NOVEL VIRUS
    WHO recalls that COVID-19 also spreads and is transmitted in hot and humid environments. The key for us should be to prevent the virus from entering the body - blowing hot air from the hairdryer into the throat or nose will not kill the coronavirus, as it is firmly attached to the mucosa. In addition, blowing a hairdryer up to your nose, eyes, or throat could cause superficial damage to the eyes, nasal cavities, or oral mucosa. Doctors warn that dry, irritated eyes or nasal passages are prone to any respiratory infection. Moreover, hot air can also lead to skin burns. As prevention, WHO recommends regular hand washing and social distancing.
  • THERMO SCANNERS MIGHTN'T DETECT THE INFECTED
    Thermo scanners only detect people who have developed a fever due to the COVID-19 infection. However, fever is only one possible symptom and not all infected persons have it. Furthermore, the symptoms of the virus usually develop within 2 to 10 days since infection, during which the person is contagious without showing signs of illness. Hence, a thermal scanner is not completely reliable in detecting the COVID-19 infection.
  • COLLECTIVE IMMUNITY ISN'T BUILD BY INFECTING POPULATION
    By containment and isolation, we are not preventing the development of collective immunity and we are not prolonging the pandemic. Collective immunity is defined as a situation where a sufficient number of people in a certain community are vaccinated against a specific disease, making it more difficult for it to spread among people who have not been vaccinated. It is not true that allowing the infection to spread among the general population is a safe way of building collective immunity. Collective immunity is not a strategy or a goal, but a scientific concept. The goal of society and governments is the protection of life through containment, delaying, research, and alleviation of the virus’s fallout.
  • NO HOME 'BREATHING TEST' CAN CONFIRM COVID-19
    Holding your breath for 10 seconds without coughing does not prove one is not infected. An infected person can be asymptomatic and have no breathing problems; in that case, the “home test” would come out falsely negative. Similarly, coughing and difficulty breathing can occur during other types of illnesses, like the common flu, in which case the “home test” would come out falsely positive. A test for COVID-19 can only be done in hospitals and specialized labs. No breathing test performed at home can confirm infection.
  • STEM CELLS TREATMENT OF COVID-19 ISN'T CONFIRMED
    Stem cells were used, for example, during treatment against the Avian Influenza A(H7N9) virus and are currently being tested against COVID-19. Patients with COVID-19 should be administered with an infusion of natural cells that are a part of the natural immune systém. Stem cells could therefore help in revitalizing the cells in the human body. An example can be seen in a patient who was injected with stem cells thrice. She had been given another dose after significant progress and overcame the virus without showing any side effects. Nevertheless, clinical experiments require time and safety of the patients cannot be threatened by administering unverified treatment.
  • NO CHILD DIED AFTER RECEIVING VACCINE FOR COVID-19
    According to the WHO, there is currently no vaccine or medicines that have been shown to prevent or cure the disease. A spokeswoman for the Senegalese Ministry of Health described the report on the deaths of 7 children as fake news. Furthermore, she assured the public that even though there is no vaccine yet, the team of experts in Dakar has been trying to create and certify the vaccine according to a set procedure. The team from the Institut Pasteur (Medical Research Institute) promised full transparency in its findings.
  • NOVEL CORONAVIRUS ORIGINATED IN CHINESE WUHAN
    The outbreak of the new coronavirus started in Wuhan, China. The Chinese authorities knew of the virus’s existence since December 27, 2019, but failed to alert the rest of the world and let it spread uncontrollably. After it grew into a pandemic, China and a few more countries started blaming other actors for the outbreak, most notably the USA or Israel.
  • IN ITALY, THE FIRST CASE OF COVID-19 APPEARS IN JANUARY
    The first official coronavirus cases in Italy was detected on the 31st of January 2020 - two Chinese tourists in Rome. First Italian patient has been diagnosed on the 21st of February. Former coronavirus cases in Italy are highly unlikely to even according to research studies, although the first case in China can be traced up to 17th of November 2019.
  • NEW CORONAVIRUS ISN'T A BIOLOGICAL WEAPON
    Theories about the artificial origin of the virus are popular but have no factual basis. If it were man-made, the genetic modification would be detectable, says the scientific journal Nature Medicine. The virus most probably came from a bat and spread to a human at a food market in the Chinese town of Wuhan. The theory of the biological weapon is also refuted by the fact that the virus as such has affected all sides of the potential conflict, and there is also no aggressor who would benefit from its use.
  • COVID-19 ISN'T A BIOLOGICAL WEAPON OF NATO
    Despite many conspiracies that point to the various "culprits" behind the creation of COVID-19 as a biological weapon, the WHO and other scientists have repeatedly confirmed that the new coronavirus is of natural origin that was created by mutating a common virus. Besides, man-made viruses should not reach such global dimensions and should be strategically limited. Furthermore, even if the virus had been created in the laboratory as a weapon, it would have not been the best tactic to spread it worldwide and endanger one's interests.
  • CORONAVIRUS ISN'T CHINESE BIOLOGICAL WEAPON EITHER
    According to researchers, it is highly probable that COVID-19 is of a natural character and was not artificially created. If someone wanted to create the new coronavirus as a pathogen, they would have to create it from the molecular structure of a virus that is proven to cause disease. The strong mutations in the RBD part of the S-protein and in its unique molecular structure rule out manipulation in a laboratory as a potential origin of SARS-Cov-2. Similar disinformation about the laboratory origin appeared in connection to the cases of SARS and MERS viruses. The natural origin was confirmed in both of these cases, however.
  • COVID ISN'T CHINESE ORIGINATED VIRAL INFECTIOUS DISEASE
    COVID” is not short for “Chinese Originated Viral Infectious Disease.” The number 19 similarly does not signify the 19th virus to originate from China. “Co-” means Corona, “vi-” means Virus, and “d-” mean Disease. The number 19 signifies the year when the disease has emerged - 2019. WHO and other organisations tried to come up with a name that would not refer to any geographical location, animal, individual or a social group. At the same time, it had to be vocable and related to the disease. Naming a disease is an important matter to prevent usage of other incorrect or stigmatizing names.
  • CORONA DIDN'T ORIGINATE IN PERMAFROST
    Coronavirus is not the beginning of a fight against diseases that have been preserved in the Siberian permafrost for centuries and thanks to global warming, now coming to the surface. It is speculation supported by no evidence. The origin of COVID-19 itself has nothing to do with permafrost. Theoretically, it is possible that disease will appear after thousands of years of waiting in the ice. Theoretically, it is also possible that aliens will pay us a visit tomorrow.
  • 5G NETWORKS DON'T SPREAD CORONAVIRUS
    There is no scientific evidence that would prove the effect of electronic signals on the human immune system or DNA structure. 5G network radio waves are not ionizing, which means they do not damage DNA inside cells as X-rays, gamma rays and UV rays do. Long before the pandemic breakout, this technology was tested in other countries as well, for example South Korea. The fact remains that COVID-19 is a droplet virus which is transmitted by coughing, sneezing, or touching contaminated surfaces.
  • THE EU DOESN'T USE THE CRISIS FOR MIGRANT INVASION
    The criticized program is not intended to move migrants into Europe but as humanitarian relief for the camps on the Greek islands. By decreasing population concentration in potential hotspots it protects not only migrants but also Greek citizens from the infection. Mainly the threatened groups (children, old, sick) have been selected for the program and only part of them will be transferred to other EU countries, which have already agreed to accept them. Currently, 1600 unaccompanied minors are being prepared for the transfer and 2000 more are planned for the future – therefore this is not about tens or hundreds of thousands of people. Another goal is to return migrants to their home countries, for which the EU has allocated 10 million. In mid-March, the EU approved a financial donation of 2000€ per person as the support for the return and reintegration of economic migrants into their home countries. Frontex’s budget last year was over 330 million. The ESTIA program at the end of 2018 received only something over 190 million. Also, migrants will not be accommodated in luxury hotels but only in facilities affordable through the financial donation, they have received – 1500€ per person. The total sum is therefore only negligible percentage compared to the EU Emergency Support Instrument, which allocates 3 billion for member states.
  • CRISIS DOESN'T ENABE BANKS TO TAKE OVER MONEY
    The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, title II, article 17 states that no one can be deprived of a legally acquired property, with the exception of public interest and under the condition of appropriate compensation. This is not a case of Brussels bullying European citizens but a common component in constitutions of all member states. The article also states that the EU will not interfere in a state’s execution of the law. Banks themselves have no right to confiscate or freeze legally acquired property, save for specific cases, such as when an owner of savings is behind with his or her payments.
  • SLOVAK BANKS PRIMARILY HELP THE CLIENTS DURING THE CRISIS
    Natural persons, one-man enterprises, small and medium-sized enterprises with up to 250 employees can request a deferral of mortgage, housing loans and consumer credit for up to 9 months. Furthermore, the Ministry of Economy of the Slovak Republic invested EUR 338 million in the Antikorona project through Slovak Investment Holding (SIH), and banks could provide up to EUR 845 million after supplementing with their own resources. During the deferral of payments, a client will not have to pay an annuity payment, ie interest and principal. The banks also committed that the postponement of repayments due to the coronavirus would not affect the client's future applications and that the client would not be considered risky for the provision of future loans. In addition to deferred payments, clients also have other options if they are unable to repay the loan, such as extending the loan maturity or refinancing.
  • COVID-19 ISN'T USED TO TOPPLE WESTERN ECONOMIES
    Italy and Greece have not yet been able to recover from the 2008 financial crisis. The weak structure of the Italian economy is based on small-to-medium enterprises, which do not perform as well as larger ones. The country is also lagging behind in modernization, the educational system, and the training of new workers. The Greek crisis was caused by insufficient transparency, bad fiscal policies, and high debt (both the national and the public one). The economic problems of these countries are therefore not artificially created.
    Germany originally banned the export of medical supplies, however, soon afterwards Berlin promised to send one million masks to Italy. France has also joined this effort. The EU can be essential in the coordination of crisis management, distribution of masks, etc. Its collapse would not benefit in any way to "Brussels bureaucrats", who, according to the speculations, participate in this conspiracy.
  • USA WON'T FALL INTO COLLAPSE IN THE WAKE OF CORONACRISIS
    Like any other countries, the USA faces a sudden rise in unemployment and stagnation of the economy focused on services. Nevertheless, economists expect a non-problematic recovery since the US economy was in good shape before the pandemic. Moreover, businesses and enterprises are being slowly opened and the restrictions should be minimal by the end of summer. Another important fact that needs to be remembered is that the current crisis falls short of the economic crises in 2007 and 2009 and their impact on the US. As such, this theory is mere speculation.
  • CORONA WASN'T CAUSED BY MOBILIZED LIBERALS
    No evidence has been given that the first infected came to Slovakia intending to vote in the elections. Similarly, nothing implies that exclusively the voters of the liberal political parties are responsible for the spread of the virus. It is mere speculation polarizing the society and inciting negative emotions. No specific group or person can be blamed for the coronavirus.
  • COVID-19 ISN'T AN ILLUSION CREATED BY ELITES
    Coronavirus stems from a natural mutation and wasn't artificially made. Scientific research suggests the existence of two strains of coronavirus. The differences between them, however, show no definite change in the virus's activity. No evidence points to one type of virus being present in specific regions more than the other. The higher mortality rate stems from different variables – worse state of health services, weakened economies, and even errors in identification and counting of the infected and the diseased. Quarantine isn't a tool for establishing a new world order – it is merely a tool used to reduce the pressure put on hospitals, allowing them to treat the infected to the best of their abilities.
  • THE GLOBAL COURSE OF THE PANDEMIC ISN'T PLANNED
    The virus that is transmitted by human contact can not be controlled and “regulated”. At the same time, it is not the truth that pandemic spreads or retreats equally around the world. The V4 states belong to least affected states thanks to early and significant measures, on the other hand, states such as the United Kingdom or the USA, which have refused to take similar measures for a long time have much higher numbers of infected and deaths, even in the terms of total population. While in Europe disease is in recession thanks to preventive measures – although still with big differences between countries – infection rate is rising sharply in Latin America, North America, and Russia.
  • THE CRISIS ISN'T MEANT TO END THE TRADITIONAL FAMILY
    Sofie Lewis of Open Democracy has been misinterpreted and portrayed as a crazed communist and feminist trying to use the pandemic to bring the end of the traditional family. Her article cautioned against the risks prolonged domestic isolation might present, such as a rise in domestic violence, strengthened stereotypes, or the inability of some people to return to their safe homes. Open Democracy is a respected organization fighting for the rights of marginalized social groups. Its portal produces factual, adequately cited, and high-grade publications. The news that either Sofie Lewis or Open Democracy wishes to dissolve traditional families or otherwise use the current pandemic is not true.
  • NGOS DO HELP DURING THE CORONAVIRUS PANDEMIC
    There are many NGOs in Slovakia that help during the coronavirus pandemic and act as a complement to the state. Thus, their defamation is inappropriate and unfair. For instance, ZavretáŠkola (ClosedSchool) helps with teaching children at home. The Carpathian Foundation has opened a grant call to support the educational activities of vulnerable and disadvantaged groups, CKO helps in socially excluded localities, assists in the supply of protective equipment, or helps residents who cannot buy food themselves. Furthermore, STOPA Slovakia helps homeless people and the people who live in poor hygienic conditions. A full list of Slovak NGOs which have been active since the coronavirus outbreak can be found here.
  • THE AMERICANS DON'T ESCAPE PANDEMIA BY FLYING TO THE MOON
    The recruitment of new astronauts is a part of the NASA program codenamed “Artemis.” The beginning of this mission can be traced back to 2017, long before the first mention of the new coronavirus. The main objective of the program is to get humans back on Moon and eventually on Mars. The large amount of candidates is unsurprising. NASA often encounters such a large number of applications.

  • COVID-19 IS NOT SHAKEN OFF IN 2-3 DAYS
    The average incubation period is 5 to 6 days, but it can last up till 14 days. Symptoms in case of easy progress last two weeks on average, it can take longer in more serious cases. Afterwards, the virus can survive in the human body for up to 37 days.
  • MASKS AND RESPIRATORS AREN'T HEALTH-THREATENING
    If we stuck with this theory, mouth-to-mouth breathing would not be possible as well. Face masks are effective in retaining droplets, which is the primary way of coronavirus transmission. A disposable or cloth face mask mainly protects others from infectious diseases since the droplet viruses do not spread further. A respirator with a filter prevents the virus from entering the airways. Some studies estimate roughly 5-times better protection in comparison to a person who does not wear a face mask. According to experts, a face mask is a symbol of a responsible attitude during the coronavirus pandemic.
  • FACE MASK MAY LOSE EFFECTIVENESS OVER TIME
    The use of a face mask is meaningful, but only when certain rules are followed: before use, read the instructions of the manufacturer; wash your hands before putting it on and only use the straps to do so; make sure it covers your nose and mouth and that there are no gaps between your face and the mask; put the mask off only with clean hands and only using the straps. Disposable face masks are to be thrown away immediately after use. Reusable face masks need to be washed regularly, as per the manufacturer's instructions. If your mask gets wet during use, replace it. If you go out running in a mask, get it wet and then mingle with others, you are increasing the risk of infection for both you and them. If you do not wear a mask with your family at home, you do not need to wear one in a car.
  • FACE MASKS AREN'T USELESS ACCORDING TO WHO
    According to the WHO, wearing a facemask is not useless, however, proper handling, sanitizing and cleaning should be considered. The WHO is consistent in its statements regarding the effectiveness of facemasks and emphasizes crucial mistakes to avoid when wearing a facemask. Moreover, the WHO points to a lack of facemasks in hospital facilities and warns that facemasks do not provide sufficient protection against viral infections. On the other hand, the WHO does not criticize states that have come up with a nationwide regulation on the compulsory wearing of facemasks and perceives the protective function of these regulations.
  • FROST DISINFECTION OF FACE MASKS IS INEFFECTIVE
    Coronavirus cannot be killed by frost or cold. The threat of a ‘frost disinfection’ of facemasks is the possible contamination of food in the freezer/refrigerator. To disinfect facemasks, it is necessary to wash them (separately, apart from other clothes) and then iron them with a steam iron (or put them in the dryer). Likewise, it is also possible to boil them for at least 5 minutes.
  • KITCHEN SALT HAS NO EFFECT ON RESISTANCE OF FACEMASKS
    There is no evidence that the salt is effective in preventing or treating COVID-19 in any form. The essence of the function of the facemask or respirator is that it mechanically captures virus particles, which the infected person releases, for instance, by sneezing or coughing. Therefore, the chemical structure of the facemask is not crucial. To disinfect facemasks, it is necessary to wash them (separately, apart from other clothes) and then iron them with a steam iron (or put them in the dryer). Likewise, it is also possible to boil them for at least 5 minutes. To ensure maximum efficiency of the facemask, proper handling, sanitizing, and cleaning should be considered.
  • PNEUMOCOCCAL VACCINES DON'T PROTECT AGAINST COVID-19
    Vaccines against pneumonia-causing bacteria, e.g. against pneumococci, do not protect against the new coronavirus. The virus is so different that it needs a new vaccine. However, vaccination against respiratory diseases is strongly recommended for general health protection.
  • CORONA ALSO SPREADS IN WARM AND HUMID ENVIRONMENTS
    Conjectures of the disappearance of the new coronavirus during the summer months were based on experience with influenza and smaller forms of coronaviruses, which respond to increased humidity and temperatures with regression and reduced infectivity. However, the course and spread of COVID-19 could not have been predicted. According to the available evidence, warmer weather does not make the coronavirus disappear and COVID-19 can be transmitted in all areas, including areas with hot and humid climates, such as Florida.
  • CORONAVIRUS CAN'T BE KILLED BY HEAT NOR FROST
    Actually, the cold air does help many viruses (flu or cold) which can be seen for their seasonal appearance and severity during the winter season. The average body temperature is constant between 36.5 and 37 degrees and does not change according to the outer environment. According to the National Institutes of Health cold weather protects the viruses because individual cells do create an external protective layer that strengthens their immunity. The decrease of moisture of the air (which comes with winter) does pose another threat – the dry air does help the virus to survive longer in the air. This information comes from the research conducted for flu or SARS viruses but the exact behaviour of SARS CoV-2 has not been researched yet. According to WHO, there is no reason to assume otherwise.
  • VICTIMS AREN'T ONLY THOSE WITH OTHER ILLNESSES
    Other illnesses such as diabetes, cancer or cardiovascular diseases do increase the probability of being infected by the COVID-19. However, it does not mean that only people with these illnesses for healthy people can also be infected by the novel coronavirus and die from the COVID-19. Research amongst Chinese patients shows that the percentage of the death of healthy people was 0.9%.
  • NEITHER FEVER NOR TOSS MEAN THE VERY END
    Toss and fever do not automatically mean lung fibrosis from which it is not possible to recover. Everybody does cope differently with the coronavirus and the symptoms might differ among people. Some individuals do not have any symptoms, others must rely on the help of doctors in hospitals. There is no symptom that would mean the illness is incurable. Fever and toss are common symptoms of other illnesses such as common flu or cold.
  • COVID-19 ISN'T THE SAME AS PULMONARY THROMBOSIS
    One of the possible side effects that doctors have discovered in several patients is that the weakening of the organism in some patients leads not only to pneumonia, but also to pulmonary thrombosis. Of course, this fact does not improve the chance of survival in any way, because pulmonary thrombosis leads to the subsequent failure of other vital organs. However, not everyone gets a thrombosis, not every deceased had it. Thus, coronavirus is not pulmonary thrombosis, the number of infected or dead would be significantly higher, if it were. It was found in 7 of 12 victims in Hamburg. It is still a relatively high percentage, but it proves that this is only a possible impact of the coronavirus on health.
  • PHYSICAL ACTIVITY DOESN'T IMPROVE THE COURSE OF COVID-19
    The WHO states that if people notice COVID-19 symptoms on themselves (wheeziness, fever, cough, etc.), they are not supposed to exercise because it can worsen the illness. Instead of physical activity, the Organization recommends to stay at home, rest, and to seek medical assistance. Physical activity is important as prevention, however - it decreases stress and other chronic problems that can cause complications during the COVID-19 infection.
  • INJECTING DISINFECTANTS ISN'T A GOOD IDEA
    Intravenous application of disinfectants is dangerous. Doctors have clearly denounced this idea as irresponsible and hazardous, as people could be poisoned or have serious health problems when disinfecting the body. Disinfection is used on surfaces and hand sanitizers on hands, but internal use is not recommended by doctors. Just sniffing disinfectant can cause health problems - not even its internal consumption. Moreover, detergent manufacturer Dettol and Lysol Reckitt Benckiser claimed that people should have never consumed any of their products.
  • LIQUID DISINFECTION IS NOT INTENDED FOR DRINKING
    In the case of the coronavirus, disinfection must be used on surfaces, not internal use by people – disinfection turns into poison in the body. Distribution in the human body can not process disinfection, it is transferred from the liver to the bloodstream at most in which it is deconcentrated to such an extent that it is not able to attack the virus in the lungs. Disinfection can cause only harm to health in the circulation of the human body. The consequences range from mild irritation through extensive damage of the digestive tract, disorientation and fainting and even death, all depends on the health of the consumer, his age and especially the amount of received disinfection.
  • MOSQUITOS DON'T SPREAD THE NEW CORONAVIRUS
    The new coronavirus is a respiratory virus which spreads primarily through droplets generated when an infected person coughs or sneezes, or through droplets of saliva or discharge from the nose. There is no evidence suggesting that the new coronavirus could be spread by mosquitoes. The best protection against the virus is frequent washing of hands with soap and water and avoiding close contact with anyone who is coughing or sneezing.
  • MALARIA DOESN'T PROVIDE ANTI-CORONA IMMUNITY
    Malaria is caused by the Plasmodium parasite, spread by mosquitoes from the Anopheles family. On the other hand, COVID-19 is caused by a respiratory virus, spread by droplets of bodily fluids from an infected person. 90 % of all malaria cases occur in Africa, where currently 55 states have confirmed cases of the COVID-19 infection. Certain antimalarials, namely hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, have been discussed as potential drugs in the treatment of COVID-19. However, there is insufficient evidence of their effectiveness.
  • USE OF ANTIMALARIALS AGAINST COVID-19 IS QUESTIONABLE
    There are several studies on the possible therapeutic effect of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine - some report positive results, while others do not report any evidence of clinical benefit. The main cause for this could be a small group of patients tested or insufficient explanation of the effects of drugs. ISAC criticises the withdrawal from scientific methods and the publication of articles in professional journals that would not normally get there. Moreover, antimalarials may have side effects, especially in patients with heart problems. Their overpurchase can lead to a deficiency for patients with diseases for which these drugs are primarily intended.
  • SPICES, GARLIC AND SESAME OIL CAN'T PREVENT CORONA
    Garlic has some positive health effects. However, garlic was previously tested on viruses causing HIV and the common cold, and the results are not generally applicable. WHO points out there is no evidence suggesting that the consumption of garlic protects from the new coronavirus. The same applies to (essential) oils from thyme and other herbs and seeds. Laboratory tests have revealed they may possess some antibacterial attributes, but no in vivo tests confirmed their effectiveness. Furthermore, even if that were true, COVID-19 is spread by a virus, not bacteria. A nutritious, balanced diet is important for your health and immunity, but no aliment can ensure protection from the new coronavirus.
  • ESSENTIAL OILS AREN'T CURE FOR COVID-19
    Aromatherapy by means of essential oils (essences) cannot be considered as a way of treatment because aroma does not have a proved healing effect on the human organism. On the contrary, some can be dangerous – they increase heat sensitivity, contain allergens, and can even be carcinogenic. An existent study, which is supposed to demonstrate the effectiveness of essential oils against contagiousness of the influenza virus, was only carried out on dogs‘ kidneys and under laboratory conditions. Selling essential oils is connected to multi-level marketing. It is currently undergoing a boom because it offers people an alternative source of income from home.
  • TERPENES FROM TREES DON'T WORK AGAINST CORONAVIRUS
    Terpenes are the primary components of essential oils, aromatic substances contained in plants. Few essential oils, such as lavender essential oil, show an antiviral effect, however, it is much lower than in the case of synthetics. Nevertheless, the effect is scientifically proven only on specific viruses, such as HSV-1 and HSV-2, or herpes simplex. For some terpenoids and terpene derivatives, laboratory tests have shown an effect against the SARS-CoV-1 virus, which causes SARS disease. However, efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 has not been proven.
  • HOMOEOPATHY CAN'T CURE COVID-19
    At present, there is no cure for COVID-19. Homoeopathy is a nonsense that has never cured anything and never will.
  • GOOD VIBRATIONS AREN'T ENOUGH TO COMBAT CORONAVIRUS
    The so-called "vibrational medicine" has been considered a delusion by health experts for many years. It is due to the absolute lack of evidence of its inaccurate understanding of the human body or the effectiveness of its "healing" procedures. The vibrational medicine is based on religious and mystical beliefs that living organisms possess a non-physical inner energy that gives them the property of life. Nowadays, the vibrational "medicine" belongs to quackery and pseudoscience. Besides, by preferring these alternative unsubstantiated methods of treatment and rejecting proven medical procedures, people often endanger their health and lives.
  • COLLOIDAL SILVER DOESN'T PROTECT AGAINST CORONA
    Colloidal silver can indeed destroy microorganisms, but only in vitro - in a test-tube. That does not mean that it is appropriate for the internal application. Its internal use does not have a proven effect on chronic diseases and can lead to very unpleasant side effects, including damage or failure of vital organs. It has no significance even in terms of nutrition. Already in 1999, FDA (Food and Drug Administration) declared that the internal application of colloidal silver has no therapeutic or preventive effect on any illness.
  • SMOKING DOESN'T MAKE ONE CORONA-RESISTANT
    The research studies used as a backbone for the disinformation does not state any causality between smoking and resistance against coronovirus. Moreover, it showed several limitations regarding the academic methods it used, such as selection bias, social desirability bias and others. One of the studies found out that up to 60 % of patients tested used to smoke and quit just recently despite being registered as non-smokers. Furthermore, the studies did not undergo the peer-review process. A WHO doctor also stated that these findings are in contrast with experience from other respiratory diseases - smoking leads to the development of severe illnesses and the probability that a patient will need lung ventilator.
  • THERE IS NO CASE OF COVID-19 CURED BY CANNABIS
    Experts in Canada have begun to examine the effects of cannabinoids on SARS-CoV-2, however, there has been no case in which a patient recovers from CBD yet. It is confirmed that the cannabinoids contained in medical marijuana are effective in the treatment of insomnia, epilepsy, and the suppression of chronic pain. Moreover, the effect of therapeutic cannabis is also significant in connection with the function of the body's immune system and reduces inflammation. Although these features are useful in combating viruses, it is still unclear whether these immune effects work with the new coronavirus. However, marijuana is an addictive and narcotic substance. Therefore, doctors are careful when introducing it into medical practice. Finally, doctors and scientists warn that smoking marijuana may increase the risk of more serious complications during coronavirus infection.
  • RECEIVING OF THE EUCHARIST INCREASES THE RISK OF INFECTION
    The coronavirus spreads on various surfaces. The risk of transmission after receiving the Sacramental bread is higher, as people put the Sacramental bread to their mouths, so the virus gains direct access to the mucous membranes and respiratory system. According to the WHO, the transmission of the COVID-19 can occur by direct contact with infected people and indirect contact with surfaces in the immediate environment or with objects used on the infected person. This thesis is also confirmed by numerous studies. In January, several people in Singapore became infected by sitting on church pews used by people infected with coronavirus the day before. Moreover, there have been numerous cases of infection during worship confirmed. Before receiving the Sacramental bread, measures such as disinfecting the hands or putting on gloves are crucial - they cannot be declared controversial and their effect cannot be underestimated.
  • CORONAVIRUS HAS A NATURAL ORIGIN
    The exact origin of the virus is not known, but based on RNA sequences analysis, it is presumed that transmission from a bat or a pangolin occurred. It is also known that two independent mutations have probably occurred. The first has enabled the transmission to humans (spike protein RBD domain) and the second one has increased the virus’ ability to infect cells (polybasic cleavage site S1-S2). The possibility that the virus was artificially created is unlikely, since its modification by genetic tools would be retrospectively detectable.
  • VIRUS PATENT DOESN'T MEAN THAT A MAN IS BEHIND IT
    Patenting allows companies to use their own sample of the virus in order to research a vaccine or medication for the disease. None of the patents points toward any of the viruses being artificially made. There is a Coronavirus US-Patent 10130701 the scientists of Pirbright Institute required in 2015. As such, it is not related to the new coronavirus originating from Wu-Chan and appearing in 2019. The designation “coronavirus” is used for the category of RNA viruses causing diseases such as cold, SARS, MERS or COVID-19. According to an American chiropractic KenGee Ehrlich, both American and European patents for coronavirus exist - US2006257852 and EP3172319B1. The first patent does not really exist, but a very similar number represents a patent from the year 2006 concerning the research of vaccine for SARS. The second patent concerns the research of vaccine for the IBV virus that belongs to the category of coronaviruses. The pathogen is different than SARS-CoV-2 - IBV is harmful only to birds.
  • COVID-19 ISN'T PHARMACEUTICAL PLOT
    The possibility that the virus was artificially created is unlikely, since its modification by genetic tools would be retrospectively detectable. There is no vaccine to profit from. The vaccine development is estimated to last 18 months, which only proves the fact that pharmaceutical companies were not familiar with the virus before.
  • THE UN DIDN'T APPROVE COMPULSORY VACCINATION
    The UN General Assembly has taken a poll on 20th of April in order to intensify the international fight against the new coronavirus. This vote was not about implementing mandatory vaccination. The General Assembly approved joint action for the general accessibility of the vaccine and other medical needs for everyone. Therefore, no mandatory vaccination of countries’ population has been approved even though we will have to wait for the vaccine to be researched.
  • THE ISRAELI VACCINE HAS BEEN ONLY TESTED ON RODENTS
    Animal testing is one of the first steps necessary for the development of any vaccine. Nevertheless, successful coronavirus vaccine tests on rodents do not mean that the human trials of the vaccine will be successful too. The initial success of the antibody allows vaccine trials to be continued on other animals. Subsequently, if the effect of the antibody is confirmed, scientists can move on to clinical human trials. However, it should be noted that the Israeli research is not aimed to develop a vaccine that would prevent people from becoming infected with the virus, it is aimed to develop an effective drug that would be used to treat already infected patients. Finally, a final product that would be widely available is still at least several months away.
  • CORONAVIRUS ISN'T A BI-PRODUCT OF AIDS VACCINE
    This is another of the disinformation conspiracies about the artificial origin of the virus. Expert studies show that the virus is most likely of natural origin. It is a zootonic virus that occurs naturally in animals and 96% have the same structure as other coronaviruses that are common in bats. Likewise, there is no information that Wu-chan, where the virus originates, has been developing the AIDS vaccine. The link between the potential vaccine against AIDS and the new coronavirus is also extremely speculative, as COVID-19 has only a few similarities to AIDS.
  • CORONA ISN'T A PRETEXT TO SPY ON CITIZENS
    The Slovak government wants to use the localising data of mobile phone operators in order to determine who was in contact with the infected and who could have contracted the disease. This concerns the data of a specific number owner's identity, such as when with whom and for how long has he or she called or sent text messages, what servers have been accessed by the phone, or the location of the owner. The government will not have access to the content of text messages or phone calls. It is only a temporary solution for the crisis. Slovakia took inspiration from countries like Taiwan, Singapore, or South Korea. The system of the "smart quarantine" is also in effect in the Czech Republic.
  • ACTORS DON'T MISUSE CORONA FOR THEIR BENEFIT
    The crisis affects everyone – not excluding employees of the culture and entertainment industry. Through an open letter to the Slovak Prime Minister, the Slovak Film and Television Academy requested solutions for growing existential problems, for example, the possibility of an interest-free loan, the postponement of mortgage and other payments, and the suspension of deductions for the social and health insurance. Apart from authors and performing artists, the SFTA also represents self-employed workers and small companies working in the audiovisual field, which means thousands of employees who lost their job. This appeal for a solution to the situation is a legitimate option that has already been employed by members of other economic sectors.
  • CHINA ABUSES THE CRISIS FOR ITS PROPAGANDA
    The Chinese state media have insinuated that the new coronavirus originated in Italy, not in Wuhan. They have twisted the worlds of the Italian physician Remuzzi, who stated in an interview on March 19 that some doctors noted unusual pneumonia among senior patients already in December last year. Remuzzi’s statement continued, however – he said that we can be certain that the virus first appeared in Wuhan and that China kept it secret for some time. On March 12, a Chinese freighter landed in Rome and brought nine physicians, masks, respirators, and other medical equipment. China presented this assistance as a gift. However, save for the assistance from the Chinese Red Cross, Italy has paid for the equipment. The Chinese propaganda also published videos of grateful Italians praising China for its generosity. One video even showed Italians signing the Chinese anthem from their balconies, but this turned out to be fake. In contrast, the EU has sent 50 tons of medical material to China – this humanitarian assistance has not received such attention.
  • RUSSIA USES THE CRISES TO ENFORCE ITS INTERESTS
    Russian planes carrying medical supplies and personnel, marked with the slogan “from Russia with love,” land in Italy to aid in its fight against the pandemic. The whole operation is accompanied by massive pro-Kremlin propaganda. According to La Stampa, 80% of the medical supplies delivered from Russia to Bergama are either unusable or outdated.
  • THERE ARE NO CELEBRATIONS OF RUSSIAN HELP IN ITALY
    Contrary to popular belief, the flags of the European Union aren't being burned in Italy and changed for Russian flags. One local businessman hanged the Russian flag in front of his business as a means to thank Russia. According to his words, however, it is nothing unusual as he has several national flags he hangs whenever he welcomes one of his business partners. As for the Russian national anthem, it was played by a pro-Russian publicist from his home. According to BBC, the videos presenting the anthem being played in Italy merely captured the same place from different angles, making it a single case. The Russian state media, however, present these instances as a nationwide phenomenon.
  • AID FROM KREMLIN DOESN'T INDICATE MATURITY OF RUSSIA
    After the Western media warned of unusable aids sent from Russia, the pro-Kremlin media began to accuse the EU states of ingratitude and portrayed Russia as a more developed country that can afford to selflessly provide help in a time of the global pandemic. According to the HDI (Human Development Index), Russia ranks 49 out of 189 countries measured. All European countries, except for Romania, are better off. The lower level of development of Russia is also confirmed by the State Economic Modernity Index. The data from 2017 rank the vast majority of the EU countries in the groups of state-of-the-art and modern economies, Russia is in the group of basic states with a weak market economy. At the same time, Russia is unable to cope well with the spread of the new coronavirus. The official number of infected people is currently the second-highest in the world, excessing the most affected European states.
  • THE UN PROVIDES HELP DURING THE CORONACRISIS
    As part of its Global Humanitarian Response Plan, the UN established a financing mechanism for all its agencies dealing with the current crises - the WFP, UNHCR, WHO, UNICEF, etc. The UN also set aside money from the Central Emergency Response Fund to aid the most vulnerable countries. Furthermore, it offers expert advice in a variety of fields.
  • CZECHIA DIDN'T OFFER HELP OVER ITS OWN CITIZENS
    At the beginning of April, the Czech Republic has offered 12 hospital beds for French coronavirus patients. In the end, these did not arrive, which was, according to prime minister Babiš, due to the improvement of the situation in France. However, according to the University Hospital Brno, they have not arrived because of the deteriorating health conditions of one of the patients. On the 31st of March, the whole capacity of Czech hospitals has been 1679 beds at the Intensive care units from which 291 were occupied with 64 patients in severe conditions. On the 16th of April, there were 418 hospitalised patients from which 75 in severe condition. Therefore, according to those facts, there were enough available beds in the country.
  • CZECHIA DOESN'T INTEND TO INFECT ITS WHOLE POPULATION
    Promotion of exposure to the virus“ is not meant as a purposeful infection of the population, but as a gradual loosening of the restriction. This would naturally mean that more people would be exposed to the virus and build at least temporary immunity. The healthcare system would even be able to tackle the potentially higher number of critically ill patients thanks to the weeks of preparations during the state-wide quarantine.

  • NEGATIVE TEST DOESN'T MEAN ABSENCE OF THE VIRUS
    A person without obvious symptoms can be false negative (healthy). Rapid tests evaluate results based on the presence of antidotes produced by the body. These start to be produced only after roughly a week from the incubation period’s passing. If the test is negative even before the outbreak of these symptoms, it does not mean that the person tested is not infected – it can mean that the body has not started to produce antidotes against the virus yet.
  • HANDWASHING IS CRUCIAL FOR COMBATING THE VIRUS
    Hand washing is one of the most fundamental and effective tools against many diseases and should be a natural part of everyday life. Furthermore, hand washing also helps to reduce the spread of the COVID-19 virus infection. The WHO recommends regular and frequent hand washing for at least 20 seconds, using alcohol-based disinfectants or regular soap and water, which kill viruses that may be present on the hands. The WHO recommendations were also confirmed by several studies. Therefore, it is important to wash your hands precisely and thoroughly, especially in public areas due to the possibility of germs present on surfaces or after coming home.
  • BLEACH AND ALCOHOL DON'T PROTECT AGAINST CORONA
    Doctors assert that drinking alcohol or bleach has no preventive or direct medical benefits; on the contrary, it may be harmful. Also, the WHO cautions against the application of bleach or chlorine on one’s skin, as it can have serious negative side effects. These solutions may be used to disinfect surfaces but are not meant to be used on the human body. The WHO recommends washing your hands frequently and thoroughly as the best protection from the new coronavirus.
  • ANYONE CAN CATCH COVID-19, NOT ONLY THE ELDERLY
    People from all age groups can catch the virus, even though the elderly and people with pre-existing health conditions are more susceptible and more likely to fall severely ill. Nonetheless, contrary to some early data from China, we now know that even younger generations (between 20 and 40 years of age) can develop serious symptoms. One quarter of all Italian patients were between 19 and 50 years of age. In the USA, one third of the first 2500 cases were between 20 and 44 years old. Despite the fact that data from China, Spain, Italy, South Korea and the USA show that the threat of infection increases with age, kids or young adults are not immune to the virus and can even die from it.
  • RESPIRATORY TECHNIQUES DON'T CURE COVID-19 DISEASE
    Laura Breach, the spokesperson of The Association of Chartered Physiotherapists in Respiratory Care, has mentioned that currently there is no evidence that respiratory exercises and techniques can help prepare healthy individuals against COVID-19. Similarly, no prove of the assistance of these techniques in recovery exists after undergoing COVID-19. However, respiratory exercises might help during the illness but they are not meant for everyone since for some people they can even worsen their health. ACPRC states that coronavirus causes dry cough and therefore it is unlikely that taking a deep breath should help.
  • CARDIOVASCULAR MEDICAMENTS DON'T WORSEN COVID-19
    The detrimental effects of drugs on hypertension and heart failure (ACE inhibitors, AT1 inhibitors and ARNI) have not been officially confirmed and, therefore, these should not be discontinued. Sudden discontinuation of RAAS (Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System) inhibitors in high-risk patients, including patients with heart failure or myocardial infarction, could have harmful effects on patient’s health. Consequently, the risk of drug discontinuation could mean the sudden influx of large numbers of cardiac patients requiring hospitalization.
  • ASTHMA MEDICATION DOESN'T AFFECT THE COURSE OF COVID-19
    Asthma is typically treated with inhaled corticosteroids, in advanced stages even in combination with other inhaled drugs or tablets. Although corticoids have an immunosuppressive effect, they should not be discontinued. Recent clinical trials have shown that asthma and allergies are not risk factors for new coronavirus infections. The best strategy to combat COVID-19 is to practise good hygiene and social distancing and follow the rules for public gatherings, quarantine and self-isolation.
  • FRUITS AND VEGETABLES DON'T KILL CORONAVIRUS
    There are many benefits to having a nutritious diet and proper nutrition helps not only in the prevention but also in the treatment of some diseases, e.g. diabetes mellitus 2. Consumption of foods rich in vitamins and other beneficial minerals combined with an overall positive lifestyle helps to keep the human immune system healthy. However, food does not have any direct antiviral effects and we cannot kill any virus with it.
  • WRAPPING IN ONION DOESN'T SAVE YOU FROM COVID-19
    Onion is, just like garlic or ginger, a good choice for prevention against various diseases. It is a very healthy kind of vegetable, containing lots of vitamins (C, B,...) and many other useful substances and minerals (zinc, potassium, iron,...). It has positive effects on our heart, immune system, and blood sugar level. It is not yet known whether the substances contained in onion have protective or inhibitory effects on COVID-19. Its effects are therefore not miraculous. Once you are infected, these natural resources cannot cure you. The general rule is that no food product can protect you against SARS-CoV-2 or cure the disease.
  • SUPPLEMENTING VITAMIN D MUST BE RATIONAL
    The lack of vitamin D has been proved by epidemiological research to cause the more severe course of the virus infections such as HIV, flu, hepatitis C. Lack of vitamin D is also said to be the cause of seasonal flu and its seasonal appearance. Supplementation of vitamin D is therefore considered as a protective measure to easy the course of the acute respiratory infections. Information from Torino in Italy show a low concentration of vitamin D within the immune system of COVID-10 patients. However, these are only preliminary findings and currently, we cannot compare the levels of vitamin D of hospitalised and not hospitalised patients. Therefore, we cannot definitely state the importance of these findings because the lack of vitamin D can only be a secondary finding and might not have importance because the lack is of the vitamin is common, especially among the elderly. It is recommended to regularly supplement vitamin D not only due to the COVID-19 but in general. However, these supplementations must not exceed the recommended dosage since the body might be intoxicated and overdosed of vitamin D which might result in severe health complications, especially for patients with chronic diseases.
  • HIGH DOSAGES OF VITAMIN C DON'T WORK
    Using vitamin C for treating several infections is one of the disputed topics among the doctors, although vitamin C must be used intravenously and in high concentration. There is no scientific research confirming using high dosage of vitamin C will prevent or even cure the COVID-19. The current knowledge of COVID-19 behaviour shows that vitamin C does not work with regard to the treatment of chronically ill patients. However, the risk of overdosing by vitamin C is low since in the case of using too much of the vitamin the body would simply not absorb the excessive dose. Overuse of vitamin C does not protect against COVID-19 and therefore it is not recommended.
  • CORONAVIRUS CAN'T BE KILLED BY LEMON NOR BAKING SODA
    The virus is stable regarding the pH environment and is able to survive between 3 to 10 pH. The mixture of baking soda and lemon have pH between 6 to 8 and therefore cannot destabilize the virus. Even if it was possible to drastically decrease the pH of our bodies, our bodies are configured to stabilise the pH level to the original ones no matter the cost. The levels of pH would only differ in residues (urine or saliva). Different body tissues have different levels of pH which are controlled by several mechanisms and cannot be controlled by diet.
  • PARACETAMOL DOESN'T PREVENT AGAINST COVID-19
    Paracetamol is used as an additional treatment during fevers since it does decrease the temperature, thus using paracetamol as a preventive measure is useless. It also does not have any antiviral effect and has no influence on the COVID-19. As already mentioned, paracetamol is only used in order to decrease the fever with no antibacterial or antiviral effects. The regular usage of paracetamol is useless and might even trigger health complications, therefore it is important to follow the stated dosage.
  • IVERMECTIN ISN'T A CONFIRMED TREATMENT OF COVID-19
    A study made by Australian scientists has shown that ivermectin, a known anti-parasitic drug, reduces SARS-CoV-2 particles in bodily tissues. However, this experiment was done in vitro, not in vivo - the drug’s effects were only tested in a lab, which means the results are not directly applicable to humans. Furthermore, the way ivermectin halts the spread of the virus is unclear thus far. A potential problem in its use in human patients may be its low solubility in water, which means it does not get absorbed by the colon in sufficient quantities. Also, just as most other pharmaceuticals, ivermectin has side effects, like fatigue, nausea, constipation or itching. It may react badly with blood thinners or aggravate existing chronic conditions.
  • HAND-DRYERS DON'T KILL THE NOVEL CORONAVIRUS
    The belief that hair dryers kill coronavirus particles stems from the fact that moist skin provides a better breeding ground for microorganisms. While this is true, hand dryers are not the best remedy. Research from the American Society for Microbiology shows that these dryers may actually contribute to the spread of viruses. The flow of air from the hand dryer transforms the pathogens on a person’s hands into aerosol and disperses it around. The dryer can also suck these particles in and spread them on another person later on. Because of these mechanics, the risk of infection using hand dryers is 190x higher than when using towels. Furthermore, there is no evidence suggesting that heat kills the new coronavirus - at least not in temperatures safe for humans.
  • CORONAVIRUS CAN'T SURVIVE IN THE AIR FOR LONG
    COVID-19 is a respiratory disease that is transmitted by virus particles in droplets of bodily fluids, excreted during talking, sneezing or coughing. These droplets are too heavy to remain in the air and quickly fall to the ground or other surfaces. A person can get hit by these droplets when standing less than 1 meter from an infected individual, or when they touch a surface covered in the infected droplets and proceed to touch their mouth, eyes or nose.
  • LONGEVITY OF CORONAVIRUS ON SURFACES VARIES
    Research has shown that particles of the new coronavirus last 4 hours on a copper surface, 24 hours on a cardboard surface, and up to 72 hours on steel and plastic surfaces. Moreover, they can survive in the air for up to 3 hours. Environmental conditions - such as heat, humidity, or temperature - also influence the longevity of the virus particles.
  • INFECTIVITY OF SURFACES IS AFFECTED BY MANY FACTORS
    Surface-based infection is caused by particles of coronavirus that settle on hands afterwards they are transmitted to eyes, nose or mouth after hand contact. The risk of getting the infection diminishes with reduction of hand contact with the face. The conditions of the environment have also impact on the possibility of infection by the coronavirus - temperature or sunlight. Therefore it is important to use simple disinfectants in order to remove virus particles from the surface in closed quarters and thus reduce the risk of infection. For so it is not surprising that people working in shops are not massively affected.
  • OZONE AUTOHEMOTHERAPY DOESN'T CURE CORONA
    Autohemotherapy is an alternative form of "treatment" which involves the withdrawal of a small amount of blood from the vein and the reinjection of the same blood back into the vein. Before the reinjection, the blood may be mixed with ozone, which is a toxic gas and it is highly reactive with many biological compounds found in the human body and can generate free radicals. In large doses, ozone has negative effects on the nervous system, heart, or eyesight. Inhalation damages mucous membranes and lungs. There is no reliable clinical study on the efficacy of ozone in the treatment of any disease, and not at all the new COVID-19. Ozone, in very high concentrations, is used to disinfect surfaces, which have a harmful effect on the human body.
  • COVID-19 VACCINE DOESN'T WORSEN THE DISEASE
    No vaccine against the COVID-19 disease currently exists and is only in development. All assumptions about its efficiency or safety are therefore premature and unfounded. It is a speculation and a startler with no factual basis.
  • LUNG VENTILATORS AREN'T WRONG TREATMENT METHOD
    The step towards connecting a patient to artificial lung ventilation (ALV) is made according to criteria which can be clearly objectivized (amount of O2 and CO2 in the blood, breathing mechanics...). That high pressures (specifically over 35-40cm H2O) in the airways have a destructive effect on pulmonary vesicles is a well-known fact among the doctors. Sometimes it is possible to get a sufficient volume of breathed-in air into the patient only at the cost of higher pressure. The solution is a thorough ALV adjustment and effort to minimize peak pressures. But it is not always possible and it is necessary to lead the patient through the critical part of the illness even at the cost of potential lung damage caused by the ALV itself.
  • DEATH CAUSED BY THE CORONAVIRUS IS NOT A FICTION
    Since illnesses and health problems are usually interlinked, it is rather difficult to exactly state the reason of death. The same goes for COVID-19 - it can be either main or hidden cause of medical problems such as pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) that can lead to death. The coronavirus infection has to be always reported, although it might have been just present in the body without any consequences for the health of the patients or it partially or fully lead to death. One of the most frequent causes of death of a patient with coronavirus was sepsis (failure of organs as a consequence of the exaggerated reaction of the immunity system due to the infection).
  • GOVERNMENT MEASURES REDUCED CONSEQUENCES OF CORONA
    Slovakia was one of the first European countries to take more stringent restrictive measures in response to COVID-19. Due to this fact, a relatively low number of infections and deaths was reported. In Slovakia, data show that escalating mobility measures have contributed to slowing the spread of the new coronavirus. According to the calculations of the Institute of Health Policy, without these measures, up to 18.2% of the population would become infected. Thanks to the measures of 16 March, this figure fell to 5.6%, and after even stricter measures to 3.1%. However, we cannot yet answer the question of what measures could be considered excessive.
  • CORONA ISN'T AN EXCUSE TO MICROCHIPPING
    No effective vaccination against COVID-19 exists yet, so no compulsory vaccination nor microchipping the population can take place. Vaccination is key to fighting infectious diseases. The vaccine induces reactions in the body which “train” the human immunity and the infected person faces a lesser threat of complications during an illness. There is no rational nor technical road from vaccination to the so-called microchipping of the population. The former President of the European Commission Jean-Claude Juncker has pointed out that vaccines save as much as 3 million human lives every year. On the other hand, disinformation and distrust towards vaccination grow with each year and significantly threaten the health and lives of people all around the world.
  • BILL GATES DOESN'T WANT TO CHIP PEOPLE THANKS TO CORONA
    In the past, Bill Gates spoke of digital certificates for the purposes of medical records in the distant future. He, however, mentioned them in connection with his effort to create an open-source digital platform meant to make the access for safe home testing more available. He has never suggested that these certificates would be in the form of microchips and there are no plans for using this yet non-existent technology during the COVID-19 pandemic. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation had researched the so-called “quantum dot eye technology” in the past, however, one of the chief authors of the research, Kevin McHugh, confirmed that it is not a microchip technology and that there are no plans for its use against the virus.
  • MILITARY HELICOPTERS DON'T SPRAY ANTI-CORONA PESTICIDES
    Similar scaremongering message was also spreading in India, Pakistan, Egypt or UAE, while each of the states debunked this hoax by official means. The Slovak Ministry of Defence has done the same. There are no pesticides specialized for viruses. Common antimicrobial substances, which could have some effect, would have to be applied in large volumes. The defence department regularly informs about all measures related to coronavirus.
  • THE EUROPEAN UNION COMBATS CORONAVIRUS
    The EU is not a federation and healthcare is not a competence of the states themselves. In January, The EU sent China 50 tonnes of medical material and earmarked 200 million EUR from public and private funds for vaccine research, diagnostics, and treatment. It suggested that the member states increase their budget by 45 million EUR with the goal of helping with repatriation and it also created a special online section “Fighting disinformation”, which is part of the website about EU’s measures in response to coronavirus and helps debunk myths and disinformation about COVID-19.
  • THE EU HELPS STATES AND DOESN'T DESTROY THEIR ECONOMIES
    EU member states are according to European Stability Mechanism (ESM) eligible to ask for help from the package of 540 billion euros without any reforms up to 2 % of their GDP. However, the capital must be allocated (be it directly or indirectly) for the fight against coronavirus pandemic. The current situation is the most severe for Spain and Italy since both states are indebted and need this financial help. This financial assistance from ESM has low interest rates that should not pose any serious problems for member states’ property.
  • COVID-19 ISN'T A PENSIONS-ALLEVIATING TOOL
    Some countries have been slower in adopting countermeasures (Great Britain or the Netherlands). According to an analysis by CNN, Boris Johnson’s strategy was based not only on creating social immunity but also on the correct timing of the infection's regulation. The British government estimated that the infection on the Isles will peak in early June. The willingness of the population to follow restrictive measures for two or more months was also questionable. After its announcement, the strategy received an unfavourable response from both the broad and the expert public. After an authoritative study by Imperial College London predicted 260,000 dead in the country, the British PM called for a restriction of social contact among the population. Therefore, Great Britain follows the same scenario as countries of continental Europe. The fact that coronavirus is dangerous for all age groups also disproves the disinformation about an intentional demographic modification.
  • COVID-19 WASN'T CREATED TO REDUCE GLOBAL POPULATION
    No global actor could have had the intent to reduce the global population since the virus was not artificially created. Several scientific analyses from around the world found no evidence of manipulation of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. No scientific argument supporting the claim that the virus is a human creation currently exists. A recent study of scientists from the USA, Australia, and the United Kingdom serves as proof of the natural origin of the virus. The SARS-CoV-2 gene is almost 80% identical to the SARS-CoV genes. They even use the same ACE2 receptor during their entry to the host cell. The study is concluded by the fact that 96% of the genetic information in the new coronavirus is the same as in the coronavirus found in bats – although bats themselves are not harmed by it.
  • CORONAVIRUS DOESN'T SERVE FOR ENFORCING EUTHANASIA
    Rumours that the French government has passed a law that allows doctors to use a strong sedative for euthanasia of seniors are not based on the truth. However, in many countries, there have been difficult medical and ethical discussions about the need to adjust legislation in the event of overloading of intensive care units. In a hypothetical situation where would be a shortage of medical staff and pulmonary ventilators, preferential treatment was considered for those patients with a higher chance of survival, younger people without health problems. This debate may have given a misleading impression about the efforts of some states to misuse the coronavirus to enforce population control and euthanasia of seniors. However, it is not reality, but fiction from the mouths of conspirators.
  • CORONAVIRUS WASN'T DEVELOPED BY THE US ARMY
    COVID-19 was not artificially developed in a laboratory for political, economic, or military purposes of any specific country. Artificial modification of the virus would be retrospectively visible and no indicators of this have been discovered.
  • NATO SOLDIERS DON'T SPREAD THE VIRUS ACROSS EUROPE
    The number of troops in the planned Defender 2020 exercise, which has been designated by conspiracy theorists as a tool for spreading the infection across Europe, has been reduced in reaction to the pandemic. NATO is monitoring the condition of its soldiers and is isolating the infected ones. The Alliance is also helping in the fight against the coronavirus, even though it has not yet deployed its own CBRN defence units. NATO's soldiers actively transport sick into hospitals, provide beds and repatriate citizens. The Slovak Armed Forces have allocated 800 troops for the fight against the coronavirus.
  • DISSOLUTION OF NATO DUE TO THE PANDEMIC ISN'T A THING
    The claim that NATO is dissolving due to the coronacrisis is mere speculation. Just like most other organizations, NATO had to adapt to the situation caused by the global pandemic; certain activities, like the Cold Response exercise, had to be cancelled. However, that does not indicate a looming collapse. NATO’s other long-term operations, like the missions in Afghanistan or Kosovo, have continued as usual. The Alliance also got engaged in the fight against the coronavirus, by delivering essential medical supplies to its member states - Italy, Czech Republic, the Netherlands, Romania, North Macedonia, and Slovakia. NATO also helped to transport patients, disinfect public spaces, build field hospitals, and more. Hence, the Alliance is not collapsing, but rather proving its solidarity and viability in times of crisis.
  • NATO DOESN'T PRIORITIZE WEAPONS OVER HEALTH
    NATO highlights the need to maintain member states' investment in their budgets even during a pandemic. However, this includes investing in resources that NATO helps Member States fight against the new coronavirus. Furthermore, NATO forces play a key role in the fight against the pandemic, especially in the areas of logistics, planning, construction of field hospitals, patient transport, disinfection of public areas and border crossings. Thus, investing in NATO is investing in the fight against the pandemic.
  • SPREADING OF THE VIRUS ISN'T REFUGEES' FAULT
    Claims about the spreading of the virus by a specific group of people are untrue. Every infected person spreads the disease, sometimes unknowingly. Therefore it is important to avoid physical contact with other people. In necessary cases, this includes using protective instruments (masks, scarfs, gloves).
  • CORONA ISN'T GOD'S PUNISHMENT FOR HUMAN SINS
    Natural disasters and diseases have sometimes been credited as divine retribution since the times of antiquity and medieval eras. According to some people, sexual minorities or tolerance for them are to be blamed for the spread of coronavirus. These thoughts are just a simple mix of hateful nonsense contributing only to the rising tensions in society.
  • WHO ISN'T RESPONSIBLE FOR DISSEMINATION OF THE DISEASE
    China is responsible for the late detection of a new coronavirus outbreak, China did not report the first case of the disease to WHO until 31 December 2019, although the country has registered it for some time. Until then, China was deliberately destroying the evidence and silencing doctors who wanted to alert the new virus. WHO declared a pandemic on 30 January 2020, month after the virus was discovered. Since then, the Organization has worked intensively to coordinate international aid, research, and inform the public. The fight against global pandemic would be almost impossible without the WHO, because there is no other organization with better experts and channels to allowing international cooperation in the field of public health. Another cooperation and coordination with the WHO will be crucial for developing the vaccine and returning “to normal”.
  • WHO HAS INTENSIVELY INFORMED ABOUT THE COURSE OF PANDEMIC
    The WHO has also worked with social networks or communication platforms to ensure dissemination of verified facts instead of disinformation. For example, it joined a chatbot to WhatsApp that provided actual data on the number of infected people and protective measures. The director of the WHO pointed out that the dissemination of disinformation about coronavirus or the organization itself, significantly complicates it work. It spreads fear and confusion with which the organization must fight additionally. The fight against global pandemic would be almost impossible without the WHO because there is no other organization with better experts and channels to allowing international cooperation in the field of public health.
  • ROMA POPULATION ISN'T PRIORITISED DURING THE CRISIS
    The marginalized communities are at a higher risk of contracting the disease due to unsanitary conditions, limited access to drinking water and health services, higher population density, and even the lack of knowledge of proper hygiene. Moreover, around 1500 people have returned to the communities unchecked since the start of the crisis. The government's precautions, including testing of the population and donations of protective equipment, are therefore necessary to prevent the spread of the virus in Roma communities, and thereafter to the rest of the country.
  • TESTING IN ROMA COMMUNITIES WASN'T DISCRIMINATIVE
    The armed forces were involved in the testing for the new coronavirus in the Roma communities in order to ensure its swift and secure process and to protect not only the Roma populace. No institution other than the army had access to the necessary equipment and trained personnel. The army was not used as an offensive or repressive force but as effective protection. Moreover, the Roma communities were not picked for wider testing out of discrimination, but to ensure their safety and timely aid if needed. The communities are locations with many risk factors for the spread of the virus, such as population density and inferior access to clean water and healthcare.
  • THE US AREN'T TRADING HUMAN LIVES FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH
    Some disinformation have claimed that certain elites from the world of finance have decided to re-start the American economy, even at the price of many lives lost to COVID-19. The truth is that the USA is facing the same challenges as many other countries - record unemployment, a stagnating tertiary sector and economic decline. To stop the negative trend, the USA started lifting restrictions and enabling people to get back to work, just as many other governments did. That does not mean that the country had stopped with all protective measures. The authorities continue to promote social distancing, good hygiene, frequent disinfection, etc. As governor Andre Cuomo said, if the choice is between public health or the economy, public health is the only available option.

We are grateful to the Charlatan Hunters (Lovci šarlatánov) for their professional assistance in the field of medicine.  


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